Nicholas-Nicolas-Nikolaus-Nils-Nicolau-Nicolai-Nicola

Modern Indo-European conventions: writing system, transcription of phonemes and loanwords, accent, etc. Etymological reconstruction of European names and common loanwords into Europe's Indo-European.
Post Reply
cquiles
Posts: 241
Joined: Wed May 17, 2006 10:31 am
Contact:

Nicholas-Nicolas-Nikolaus-Nils-Nicolau-Nicolai-Nicola

Post by cquiles » Wed Apr 30, 2008 7:34 pm

From the Greek name Νικολαος (Nikólaos) which meant "victory of the people"; from Ancient Greek νικάω (conquer) or νικη (victory) and λαός (people). The saint (obit. 326 C.E.) was a bishop of Myra in Lycia, patron of scholars, especially schoolboys. A popular given name in England in Middle Ages, as was the fem. form Nicolaa, corresponding to Fr. Nicole. Colloquial Old Nick "the devil" is attested from 1643, evidently from the proper name, but for no certain reason. Best known for a legendary St. Nicholas, associated with Father Christmas or Santa Claus.

1) First term from Ancient Greek νῑκάω or νί̄κη (Dor. νῑκᾱ), i.e. from Gk. nīko-, itself from IE nīko-, from PIE root nēik, "attack; fight, rail"; cf. O.E. ge-nǣstan “quarrel”(*naihstian?); Bal.-Slav. *ninkō “begins violent” in Lith. -ninkù, -nìkti ds., Ltv. nikns “angry, irate”, ablaut. naîks “violent”, Lith. dial. neikom “very”, O.Pruss. neikaut “wandeln”, Slav. *niknǫ, *niknǫti in O.C.S. vъz-niknǫti “again to sich come”, R.C.S. niknuti “hervorwachsen”, etc

2) Second element Gk. laós, "people", with variants Ion. leoj (rare) and ion. att. leèj (old and rare) is possibly an a-grade of a word probably belonging to PIE root leu-dh-, with derivatives meaning "grow up; people; free"; cf. Gk. ἐλεύθερος “free” from *leudhero-s = Lat. līber “free” = Alb. lirë “free”, as well as O.H.G. liut, O.E. lēod “people”, M.H.G. liute “people”, O.E. lēode ds., and O.H.G. liut “person”, Ger. dial. das Leut “person”,etc.; or O.C.S. ljudьje (*leudei̯es) pl. “the people” (sg. Russ. ljud, Cz. lid), ljudinъ “the Gemeinfreie”, Ltv. ĺàudis pl. “people, people, Gesinde”, Lith. liáudis “people”.

Thus the reconstructible Proto-Greek Nīko-laFos is also MIE Nīkoláwos.

Equivalents:
* Albanian: Nikolla or Nishi
* Arabic: Nicola or نقولا.
* Armenian: Նիկողայոս (Nikoghayos) or Նիկողոս (Nikoghos)
* Bulgarian: Никола , Николай
* Catalan: Nicolau, Micolau
* Croatian: Nikola, Niko
* Czech: Mikuláš m., Mikoláš, Nikola m.
* Chinese: 尼古萊 (Nígŭlái)
* Danish: Niels, Niklas
* Dutch: Nicolaas
* Finnish: Niilo, Niko
* French: Nicolas
* German: Nikolaus
* Georgian: ნიკოლოზ (Nikoloz)
* Greek: Νικόλαος (Nikolaos)
* Hungarian: Miklós
* Icelandic: Nikulás
* Irish: Níoclas
* Italian: Nicola, Niccolò
* Japanese: ニコラス (Nikorasu)
* Korean: 니콜라스 (Nikolaseu)
* Latin: Nicolaus
* Latvian: Niklāvs
* Lithuanian: Mikalojus, Mikas
* Luxembourgish: Nicolas
* Norwegian: Nils
* Polish: Mikołaj
* Portuguese: Nicolau
* Romanian: Nicolae
* Russian: Николай (Nikolai)
* Scottish: Nicol
* Scottish-Gaelic: Neacail
* Slovak: Mikuláš m.
* Serbian: Никола (Nikola)
* Spanish: Nicolás
* Swedish: Nils, Niklas
* Thai: นิโคลัส
* Ukrainian: Микола (Mykola); old style: Миколай (Mykolai)
Carlos Quiles - Academia Prisca

Post Reply